Learning Outcomes are summarized lists of the main ideas/skills that students should take away from a chapter. “Learning Outcomes” lists are not exhaustive; there may be other ideas/skills covered in the chapter that are also useful but not necessarily the main focus.
For Chapter 7 the Learning Outcomes are:
1. Identify a nucleophile and an electrophile in a chemical reaction.
2. Apply concepts from earlier chapters to identify and/or rank nucleophiles and/or electrophiles.
3. Predict the products, required reagents and draw the proposed mechanisms for the addition of hydride to carbonyls by NaBH4 and LiAlH4.
4. Predict the general stereochemical outcome of an addition reaction (no new stereocentre; a racemate is formed; a mixture of diastereomers is formed).
5. Be able to identify reduction or oxidation reactions common in organic chemistry.
6. Predict the products, required reagents, and draw the proposed mechanisms for the organometallic reagents covered in the lectures (Grignard and organolithium reagents).
7. Apply concepts from earlier chapters to identify and/or rank leaving groups.
8. Understand how acids and bases can be used to catalyze addition reactions to carbonyl groups.
9. Predict the products, required reagents, and draw the proposed mechanisms for formation of hydrates, hemiacetals, and acetals using acid or base catalysis.