About This Book

Introduction to Applied Statistics for Psychology Students, by Gordon E. Sarty (Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan) began as a textbook published in PDF format, in various editions between 2014-2017. The book was written to meet the needs of University of Saskatchewan psychology students at the undergraduate (PSY 233, PSY 234) level.

In 2019-2020, funding was provided through the Gwenna Moss Centre for Teaching and Learning, along with technical assistance from the Distance Education Unit, to update and adapt this book, making it more widely available in an easy-to-use and more adaptable digital (Pressbooks) format. This update included an expansion to add chapters on using RStudio, as an alternative to SPSS. The update also made revisions so that the book could be published with a license appropriate for open educational resources (OER).

OERs are defined as “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others” (Hewlett Foundation). This textbook and other OERs like it are openly licensed using a Creative Commons license, and are offered in various digital and e-book formats free of charge.

Printed editions of this book can be obtained for a nominal fee through the University of Saskatchewan bookstore.

Licensing and Copyright


Except where otherwise noted (see notes below on the copyright for SPSS and R screenshots), the content of this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Under the terms of the CC BY-NC-SA license, you are free to copy, redistribute, modify or adapt this book as long as you provide attribution. You may not use the material for commercial purposes. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. Additionally, if you redistribute this textbook, in whole or in part, in either a print or digital format, then you must retain on every physical and/or electronic page an attribution to the original author(s).

Copyright: SPSS Screenshots

SPSS Inc. was acquired by IBM in October, 2009. Reprints of images (i.e., screenshots) from IBM® SPSS® Statistics software (“SPSS”) appear courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation, © International Business Machines Corporation. IBM, the IBM logo, ibm.com, and SPSS are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at “IBM Copyright and trademark information” at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml. This consolidated credit paragraph and corresponding copyright notices must be listed on a title page or other conveniently viewable location where any reprints of this material appear. Any repurposing of the material in this book should also follow these same requirements.

The University of Saskatchewan Open Press obtained specific permissions from IBM to reprint IBM SPSS Statistics screen images for the purposes of publishing this book, according to the conditions outlined here. Individuals who wish to use, duplicate, or redistribute any of these images are advised to do so in compliance with copyright law or to contact IBM directly for permissions: http://www.ibm.com/contact/submissions/extsub.nsf/copyright. If any derivative version of this book (i.e., remixed, transformed, modified, or built-upon version) is created, additional copyright permission from IBM should be acquired for including any of their images in the derivative version before it is released.

Copyright: RStudio Screenshots

Reprints of images (i.e., screenshots) from RStudio are © the R Foundation, from http://www.r-project.org, and may be reproduced for any purpose provided they are credited to the R statistical software using an attribution such as this.

Cover Image

Cover image by Ron Borowsky and Gordon Sarty, used for public talks and released with a CC BY-NC-SA license. The statistical methods that you will learn in this course were necessary to produce the functional MRI (fMRI) brain maps illustrated on the cover. In particular, a one-way ANOVA technique was used to detect the brain activations shown in the images[1]. The study shown was designed to reveal ventral and dorsal stream processing for ‘what’, ‘where’ and ‘how’ interpretations of words and pictures presented to the experimental subjects while they were in the Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI)[2].

  1. Sarty GE, Borowsky R. “Functional MRI Activation Maps from Empirically Defined Curve Fitting”, Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B (Magnetic Resonance Engineering), 24B, 46-55, 2005.
  2. Borowsky R, Loehr J, Friesen CK, Kraushaar G, Kingstone A, Sarty GE, “Modularity and Intersection of ‘What’, ‘Where’, and ‘How’ Processing of Visual Stimuli: A New Method of fMRI Localization”, Brain Topography, 18, 67-75, 2005.