8.1. Weathering, Sediment, and Soil – Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter of the textbook, learning the vocabulary, and working through the review questions, students should be able to:

  • Define weathering.
  • Describe the processes that contribute to weathering.
  • Give examples of the main types of weathering processes.
  • Describe how carbonic acid forms, and detail how it is involved in weathering processes.
  • Describe how mine waste weathering can generate acid and metals in mine wastewater.
  • Name the mineral(s) that are particularly problematic in mine waste weathering.
  • Explain the difference between weathering and erosion.
  • Describe the role of oxygen in weathering.
  • Order the minerals quartz, halite, olivine, feldspar in terms of their stability to weathering.
  • List the components of soils.
  • Describe the factors that influence soil formation. Describe how soil composition varies with depth.
  • Describe how climate and rock characteristics such as surface area are important in weathering.

Learning outcomes not covered in the textbook chapter in detail, but we may discuss them in class (depending on your professor):

  • Provide examples of physical, chemical, and biological weathering.
  • Describe how the size, mineralogy, and angularity of particles change as they are transported downstream in a river.
  • Provide examples of environments where only very stable minerals persist over time (due to strong and consistent weathering activity).
  • Describe processes that can transport sediment in streams.
  • Describe how the energy of stream water influences the size of particles a stream can carry.
  • Describe the connection between chemical weathering and the climate system.
  • Describe how mineral solubility and dissolution rate relate to weathering.


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Physical Geology Workbook Copyright © 2019 by Joyce M. McBeth is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book