Appendix III. Mathematics
It is helpful to review some key concepts from high school mathematics to prepare for this course. These are concepts that are generally covered in schools in Saskatchewan in Grade 10 science class (or earlier). This appendix contains outcomes, vocabulary, and review questions in mathematics.
Note that this appendix is not intended to reteach you high school math; it provides guidance on aspects of high school math that will be useful as background for this introductory physical geology course. If you are struggling with these concepts please approach your instructor to chat about other resources to help you.
AIII1. Outcomes
After reviewing this appendix the learner should be:
 familiar with key mathematics vocabulary and be able to use these words in sentences.
 able to draw acute, right, and obtuse angles, and know the difference between parallel and perpendicular lines.
AIII2. Vocabulary
Review this list of vocabulary. Try to define each on out loud, and create a sentence using each word in context. You may look them up on Wikipedia if you need help remembering their meaning.
 perpendicular
 angle
 acute angle (low angle)
 right angle
 left
 right
 parallel
 geometry
 greater than
 less than
 equal to
 plus
 minus
 formula
 notation
 unit
 vertical
 horizontal
 scale
 continuous
 discontinuous
 order of magnitude
 linear
 symmetrical
 asymmetrical
 straight
 curved
 thin
 thick
 radius /radii
 diameter
 subscript
 superscript
 symbol
 size
 shape
 circle / circular
 ellipse / elliptical
 cylinder / cylindrical
 sphere
 square
 cube
 rectangle
 triangle
 pyramid
 prism
 range
 90 degrees (90˚)
 two dimensional (2D)
 three dimensional (3D)
 one dimensional (1D)
 times (e.g., 10,000 times, or 10,000 x)
 scientific notation (e.g., 3 cm = 3 x 10^2 m or 3 x 10^{2} m)
 dimensions (length, width, height)
 adjacent
 orientation
 interior
 exterior
 proportion
 bisect
 graph
 horizontal axis
 vertical axis
 graph scale
 average / mean
 center / centre
 logarithmic scale
AIII3. Review Questions
Geometry
 What is the word and symbol used to describe an angle (if you are writing the value for an angle in a sentence)? E.g., a 90 ______ angle.
 What is the symbol for angle if you are drawing an angle?
 What is the angle between two perpendicular lines?
 What is a right angle?
 Draw a right angle triangle.
 What is the symbol for an angle that is perpendicular?
 What is the angle between two parallel lines?
 What are some examples of surfaces that are parallel that you interact with in your daily life?
 What are some examples of surfaces that are perpendicular that you interact with in your daily life?
 Label the following objects as twodimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D). Draw an example of each of these objects.
 rectangle
 square
 sphere
 circle
 triangle
 pyramid
Units and conversations
 What is the mathematical symbol for:
 greater than
 less than
 equal to
 What is the abbreviation for millimeter? centimeter? kilometer?
 Pick a unit scale that would be appropriate for measuring each of the following (mm, cm, m, or km). Estimate (roughly) the width of each.
 your foot
 the building you live in
 the city of Saskatoon
 your thumbnail
 the width of an eyelash
 the diameter of grains of sand
 What is the scientific notation in metres (m) for each of the following:
 10,000 cm
 100 m
 0.0001 km
 3,300 mm
 0.00051 cm
 convert each of the following into metres (m):
 10 km
 1000 cm
 1 mm
Graphing and graph interpretation practice
 Calculate the average (mean) of the following numbers:
 2, 10, 5, 6
 2, 10, 5, 6
 Draw a graph showing the months of the year on the x axis, and the average number of steps per day you walk per day in each month on the y axis (you can get steps data directly from your cell phone health application). Alternatively, you could estimate your average steps per day for each month at three levels: high, medium, and low. Don’t forget to add a legend and labels for your axes, and units for the y axis. Note: If you aren’t sure which axis is the xaxis, and which is the yaxis, check on Wikipedia.

 What does the graph tell you about your walking patterns seasonally?
 Look up the average monthly temperature data for Saskatoon on Wikipedia, Graph the average monthly temperature (yaxis) against the month.

 What is the pattern of this graph? Is there a relationship between this and your walking patterns over the course of a year?
 Have a look at this illustration comparing energy use in households across Canada. Create an xy graph representing the data in the illustration. Note: there are a few different ways you could plot this data, I have provided three xy graphs so you can try plotting the data in different ways. How does the plot you make influence how you interpret the data in your graph?