By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain how accurately citing sources can have an impact on your ethos as a professional communicator
- Identify the four parts of a reference: the author, the date, the title, and the source
- Differentiate between a parenthetical citation and narrative citation, and explain how they are examples of the author-date citation system
- Create narrative citations that use signal verbs to identify the rhetorical purpose of an author
- APA Style
- reference entry
- references page
- in-text citation
- parenthetical citation
- narrative citation
- author-date citation system
- signal verbs
It’s time to talk about citing sources. You’ve seen citations in action throughout this text, and we mentioned it briefly in the previous chapter. Now it’s time to go over how to put them in your paper. This chapter will focus on how you do that from a mechanical perspective. Specifically, we will look at how you can use and create using the American Psychological Association Style Guide, better known as APA Style.
However, we want to be clear about something. APA Style—and all style guides for that matter—have rules about more than just how to cite sources. Specifically, they have rules around formatting papers such as where page numbers should go, how to create a title page, how to design headers, etc. You don’t have to worry about that because we have our own formatting system in RCM 200 that we want you to follow. This will be covered in the next chapter. All we want you to focus on with APA style is how to cite your sources and create reference entries.
Why Did We Pick APA Specifically?
It’s important to note that APA style is one of several citation styles that exist for students and professionals engaging in academic conversations. You may have already encountered these styles if you have taken classes in different departments at the University of Saskatchewan. For example, the English department uses the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, whereas the Indigenous Studies department uses the Chicago Manual of Style. Combined with APA style, these are the three most well-known citation styles used in North America.
Do you have to learn all the different styles in the world to be a successful student and professional? Depending on the the classes you take, and your career choice, you might. However, once you settle in to your upper division courses in your program, you will most likely only be using one style guide through out. However, what further complicates this issue is that, even within the same department, individual programs can have their own preferred citation style that you might have to learn. For example, the Mechanical Engineering program and the Electrical Engineering program each have their own preferred style that students in those programs will need to learn eventually.
For RCM 200, we have chosen to require the APA style for your reports because it is the most similar to how citation and referencing is done in scientific fields. You’ll see what that means in a moment, but in general, this means if you can handle citation and referencing in APA style, you should be able to handle citations in your field, whether it’s engineering, agriculture, kinesiology, or another field entirely.
One important note about all style guides is that they receive updates every couple of years. This means that the rules and expectations will change somewhat with each new edition. For our purposes, we are using the 7th of edition of the APA style guide, which came out in 2020.
Why do style guide publishers do this? It may seem like a hassle to have to relearn the rules every ten years or so, but there are two main reasons. The first is keep up with the evolution of research. For example, the first edition of the APA style guide came out back in 1953. Back then, researchers didn’t need to worry about citing sources such as YouTube videos or websites or even Tweets. Now, in the latest edition, there are rules for how to do that.
The second reason is to keep up with the evolution of the English language. In previous editions there was no guidance around gender and preferred pronoun usage. Now, there is specific guidance on both of those topics in addition to how to avoid implying gender binaries in your writing.
Why Use a Style Guide At All?
Using APA Style, or any style guide for that matter, is important for establishing your credibility, or your , as a professional communicator. Every you use will correspond to an entry on the at the end of your . This allows readers to quickly check the back of your report to see where your sources are from. In doing so, you are able to show that you have taken the report seriously be engaging with legitimate, professional sources in the field.
Additionally, style guides ensure that your report is consistent. You may think that having slight differences in how you use an in-text citation may seem like a non-issue, but people notice these things! If they see you are not paying attention to specific details, they may wonder where else you are not paying attention, and you will lose credibility.
As a professional communicator, it falls onto you to ensure you understand these guidelines and can apply them in your own writing.
Let’s begin with a quick pre-assessment. You probably already have some idea about how to cite sources already. Below are five multiple choice questions. At the top of each question, you will see the full reference entry for a source we have used in this text. Pick the example in-text citation that cites that source correctly. If you’re not sure which is correct, that’s okay. This is just for you to see what you already know.
How to Use APA
For the reminder of this chapter, we will discuss the mechanics of . There will be two parts:
- How to create a
- How to add to your paper
Before we go into each part, please note that rules we show you will be the basic requirements. Depending on the source, you may need to add more information to your reference entry, or adjust how you write the in-text citation. To learn more about all these differences, check out Purdue OWL. Their website provides a good overview, with examples, of the different ways to write your references and in-text citations.
If you would like some in-person feedback, or have questions, please visit the USask Writing Centre in the Murray Library. You can meet with someone in-person or online to discuss your questions.
Perhaps surprisingly, we are going to start with the end of your paper, the . This is because all are based on this section of your report.
The references page allows your reader to easily find any work you cite in your paper. This is because all of your sources will be written up as on the page. These works should only be ones that you used in your paper. This means you must include entries for all the sources that support the ideas, claims, and concepts you are presenting.
Please note a reference page is different from a bibliography (which you may have had to create in high school). While both will include the sources you used to write your paper, a bibliography will also include works you used for background reading, even if they’re not cited in your paper. Put another way, if you use a source for background research, but don’t use the source’s content to write your paper, then it doesn’t go in your references page.
Again, please keep in mind that we will not be able to cover all the variations on how to do a reference entry, because there are just too many. Instead we will look at the basic principles. If you need help citing a specific resources, we highly recommend checking out the Purdue Owl, visiting the USask Writing Centre, or speaking with your instructor.
What’s in a Reference Entry?
In APA style, a reference entry needs, at minimum, four elements. These elements tell the reader specific information about where you got your source. They are:
- the author (who wrote the work?)
- the date (how recent is the information you are using?)
- the title (what is the name of the original source?)
- the source (where can the reader find this work if they want to use it for their own research?)
Every reference entry you write should have these four elements. However, each type of reference entry ( a book, a journal article, an online video, etc.) can have some slight variation on what those four elements look like.
Take a look at the three reference entry examples below from sources we’ve used in this course. Can you find all four elements? How are all three references similar? How are they different?
MacLennan, J. (2009). Effective communication for the technical professions (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
(2) Journal Article
Booth, W. C. (1963). The rhetorical stance. College Composition and Communication, 14(3), 139-145. https://doi.org/10.2307/355048
(3) YouTube Video
Wordvice Editing Services. (2018, April 1). How to paraphrase in research papers (APA, AMA) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VACN6X2eF0
You should notice that each source type is a little different from the others. For example, (1) and (2) use an author name, but (3) uses an organization name. The title for sources (1) and (3) are italicized, but not for (2). Instead, the name of the journal is italicized. There are other differences as well, but the point is that you realize that how you format a specific reference entry will depend on the source type.
This is because there are dozens of different source types, and one might be formatted slightly differently than another. To be clear, we don’t expect you to know how to format every type of source. That’s why there are citation managers and citation creator websites (more on that below). What we want you know is what information to include when you make your own references page, and know where to go when you have questions.
To make this easier on you, there are websites like CiteFast that will help you generate reference entries. There are also computer programs called Reference Managers that will automatically generate a references page for you once you put in the relevant information. The University of Saskatchewan library has a list of reference managers that they recommend using and offers workshops throughout the term on how to use them.
One word of caution though. Though these services make writing reference entries easier, they are not always perfect. Sometimes they make mistakes and it is up to you to check to make sure the reference entry is written and formatted correctly.
Formatting your References Page
Below are two examples of the same reference page. One follows the correct formatting rules. The other does not. Can you tell which is better and why?
Fortunately, the two rules for formatting a references page are pretty simple they are:
- Put references in alphabetical order by the author’s last name or organization’s name
- If the reference runs over to multiple lines, make sure to indent each successive line in the reference.
An is a mechanical way that a writer (you) acknowledges the work of others. That means, you should “cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work” (American Psychological Association, 2019, p. 253). The information that follows the quote in the previous is an example of a citation.
If you went to high school in Canada, you are probably at least somewhat familiar with citations. You most likely did it in your high school English class.
uses what is known as the for citing in texts. This means that, at minimum, your citations will have:
- the last name of the author (or authors)
- the year the source was published
If you include a , such as the sentence above, you will also need to include the page number.
A Very Important Note
Typically, APA Style only requires you to include page numbers if you are using a direct quote in your writing. However, for RCM 200, your instructors want you to include page numbers every time you cite a source in your report. That means, whether you use a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary, include the page number. This will allow you more opportunities to practice your in-text citation skills.
An in-text citation is commonly found in the body of your report. However, they can also be found in tables, appendixes, and figures. They are important because they show the reader where your information comes from for the claims you are making. If the reader is interested in the source, they can then flip to your references page at the end of your and learn more about the source.
Here are two versions of what an in-text citation can look like using the same information. The first one is known as a and the second is a :
1. A concept that will directly impact your relationship with someone is your footing, which is the “foundation upon which your credibility rests in a given interaction” (MacLennan, 2009, p. 10).
2. MacLennan (2009) explains that one concept that will directly impact your relationship with someone is your footing, which is the “foundation which your credibility rests in a given interaction” (p. 10).
The first example, a parenthetical citation, is the one that most people are familiar with. The second one, a narrative citation, is probably unfamiliar, but it is not difficult to apply once you know how. Ideally, you should use a combination of both methods in your writing.
First, let’s start with because they are the ones most students are already know. At it’s core, a parenthetical citation needs the surname of the author (or authors) that wrote the original source material you are using and the year the information is published.
For our RCM 200 course, you will need to also include the page number regardless of whether you are using a , , or . It will look like this:
If the information you are citing goes onto more than one page, the citation will look like this:
And that’s it.
Parenthetical citations are almost always placed at the end of the sentence. One thing that students often mistake is where to position the period in a parenthetical citation. Notice in example (1) in the previous section that the period goes after the citation. Not before the closing quotation mark, which is where most students want to put it. Some students will also try to put a period before the quotation mark and after the citation, but this is wrong! You only need one period, and it goes after the citation.
One important note is that the content of your citation will change depending on the number of authors and if the there is a group author like an organization. The year will also change slightly if you are citing the same author who published multiple papers in the same year. This page from Purdue OWL provides guidelines on how to format these situations.
A uses the same as a . The difference is that instead of the citation occurring at the end of the text, it occurs in the text itself. The author’s name will be in the text and this is immediately followed by the publication year in parenthesis. The page number will come at the end of the sentence:
Jones (1994) advocates…theory (p. 41).
Tanaka (2020) agrees… study (pp. 245-246)
Using Signal Verbs
(2) Smith (2020) illustrates…
(3) Smith (2020) verifies…
Table #1: Commonly Used Signal Verbs
|Making a claim||Recommending||Disagreeing or Questioning||Showing||Expressing Agreement||Additional Signal Verbs|
How Do I Choose Which Citation To Use?
One thing to keep in mind is that you will never mix and in the same sentence. You will only use one.
But how do you know which one to use? There are several reasons why you would use one of the other, but here are the main two:
- If you want to highlight the author, use a narrative citation. You might do this because the author is well-known in your field and you want to add some authority to your own argument. Alternatively, if you are arguing against something the author is saying, you may want to mention them directly
- If you want to highlight the information, use a parenthetical citation. You might do this if you are trying make a point about the topic or provide some general information. Also, if you want to focus in on the argument a source is making, and not who made the argument, you would use this form.
- When writing a report, it is important to establish your by consistently and accurately citing your sources. Using a style guide can help you do this.
- For RCM 200, we want you to APA style for your , , and , but not for formatting.
- A references page is a list of all the all source you are citing in your paper. Each individual source is turned into a reference entry.
- The in-text citations go into the body of your report. Anytime you use information that is not yours, you must cite it either using a or a . Though both types of citations are formatted and implemented differently, both follow the .
- For our course, every in-text citation you include should have the author, date of publication, and page number (if available).
- A parenthetical citation goes at the end of a sentence, with the author and date and page number in parenthesis. For example: (MacLennan, 2010, p. 10).
- A narrative citation is embedded in the text. The author’s name is combined with the date of publication followed by a . For example: MacLennan (2010) demonstrates…
This chapter contains material from Technical Writing Essentials (on BCcampus) by Suzan Last and Candice Neveu. It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
also called a "citation," in-text citations are a mechanical way that a writer acknowledges the work of others. An in-text citation can take two forms: a parenthetical citation or a narrative citation.
detailed information about your source that a reader can use to find the information on their own. A reference entry should include, at minimum, the author(s) who generated the source, the date the source was published, the title of the source, and information on where the source can be found.
a rhetorical appeal that addresses the values of an audience as well as establishes authorial credibility/character
a section of your report that will have reference entries for all of the sources you cite in your paper. All reference entries should be organized in alphabetical order by author last name or organization name, and, if the reference runs on to multiple lines, each successive line should be indented.
an account of your investigation into a subject, presented in a written document or oral presentation that has conventional formatting
the American Psychological Association (APA) Style is a style guide that provides guidance on how to format papers. For this course, we are using it only for rules on citing sources and creating reference entries.
a quality that allows others to trust and believe you
a system for creating in-text citations that requires the inclusion of the author(s) last name, and the year the source was published. For RCM 200, we want you to also include the page number.
a word-for-word copy of someone else's words and/or ideas.
a type of citation that comes at the end of a sentence where an outside source is used. The author, date, and page number go inside the parenthesis. For example: (MacLennan, 2009, p. 10)
a type of citation where the source information is embedded into the text. The author's name is in the text and is then followed by the year in parenthesis. The year is then followed by a signal verb. Include the page number at the end of the sentence in parenthesis. For example: MacLennan (2009) argues....(p. 10).
a way to use your own words to present information. This method is more detailed and specific than a summary and retains the length of the original source.
a way to use your own words to present your own information. This method is used for describing an entire source. This means that you will focus only on main ideas and not go into details.
a special verb that show the reader how an author is expressing their ideas