Chapter 3. Psychological Science & Research

Chapter 3 Summary, Key Terms, and Self-Test

Charles Stangor; Jennifer Walinga; Jorden A. Cummings; and Lee Sanders


Psychologists study the behaviour of both humans and animals in order to understand and improve the quality of human lives.

Psychological research may be either basic or applied in orientation. Basic research and applied research inform each other, and advances in science occur more rapidly when both types of research are conducted.

The results of psychological research are reported primarily in research reports in scientific journals. These research reports have been evaluated, critiqued, and improved by other scientists through the process of peer review.

The methods used by scientists have developed over many years and provide a common framework through which information can be collected, organized, and shared.

The scientific method is the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct research. In addition to requiring that science be empirical, the scientific method demands that the procedures used be objective, or free from personal bias.

Scientific findings are organized by theories, which are used to summarize and make new predictions, but theories are usually framed too broadly to be tested in a single experiment. Therefore, scientists normally use the research hypothesis as a basis for their research.

Good theories are falsifiable. This means that the relationships between the variables that are predicted by the theory can be shown through research to be incorrect.

Scientists use operational definitions to turn the ideas of interest — conceptual variables — into measured variables.

It is important for psychological research using humans and animals to be ethical. Our ethics codes are developed from the moral principles of weighing risks against benefits, acting responsibly and with integrity, seeking justice, and respecting people’s rights and dignity.

Researchers must follow specific ethics codes, providing rules for how to conduct studies. Some historical events that impacted our ethics codes today are the Nuremberg trials, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Belmont Report.

Decisions about whether psychological research using human and animals is ethical are made using established ethical codes developed by scientific organizations and on the basis of judgments made by the local Ethical Review Board. Informed consent, deception, and debriefing are all considered when deciding if research will be approved.

Psychological studies start with a research design that vary according to its strengths and limitations, and it is important to understand how each differs.

Descriptive research is designed to provide a snapshot of the current state of affairs. Descriptive research allows the development of questions for further study but does not assess relationships among variables. The results of descriptive research projects are analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Correlational research assesses the relationships between and among two or more variables. It allows making predictions but cannot be used to draw inferences about the causal relationships between and among the variables. Linear relationships between variables are normally analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.

The goal of experimental research is to assess the causal impact of one or more experimental manipulations on a dependent variable. Because experimental research creates initial equivalence among the participants in the different experimental conditions, it allows drawing conclusions about the causal relationships among variables. Experimental designs are not always possible because many important variables cannot be experimentally manipulated.

Because all research has the potential for invalidity, research never “proves” a theory or hypothesis.

Threats to construct validity involve potential inaccuracies in the measurement of the conceptual variables.

Threats to statistical conclusion validity involve potential inaccuracies in the statistical testing of the relationships among variables.

Threats to internal validity involve potential inaccuracies in assumptions about the causal role of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

Threats to external validity involve potential inaccuracy regarding the generality of observed findings.

Informed consumers of research are aware of the strengths of research but are also aware of its potential limitations.

The replication of findings is an important hallmark of science. Replication projects in psychology have had mixed results, with many studies not being replicated. There are multiple reasons why study results might not be replicable.

Key Terms

  • Anonymity
  • APA Ethical Code
  • Applied Research
  • Arithmetic Mean (M)
  • At-Risk Research
  • Autonomy
  • Basic Research
  • Belmont Report
  • Beneficence
  • Blind to Condition
  • Case Studies
  • Central Tendency
  • Common-Causal Variable
  • Conceptual Replication
  • Conceptual Variables
  • Confederate
  • Confidentiality
  • Confounding Variables
  • Consent Form
  • Construct Validity
  • Correlational Research
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Curvilinear Relationship
  • Debriefing
  • Deception
  • Declaration of Helsinki
  • Dependent Variable
  • Descriptive Research
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Dispersion
  • Distribution
  • Double-Blind Experiment
  • Ethical Review Board (ERB) (also known as Institutional Review Board, IRB)
  • Ethics
  • Empirical
  • Exact (or Direct) Replication
  • Exempt Research
  • Experimenter Bias
  • Experimental Research
  • External Validity
  • Falsified Data (or faked data)
  • Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects
  • Generalization
  • Incidence
  • Independent Variable
  • Informed Consent
  • Internal Validity
  • Justice
  • Laws
  • Linear Relationship
  • Limiting Condition
  • Maximum Observed Score
  • Measured Variables
  • Median
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Minimum Observed Score
  • Minimal Risk Research
  • Mode
  • Multiple Regression
  • Naturalistic Observations
  • Negative Linear Relationship
  • No Relationship
  • Nonlinear Relationship
  • Normal Distribution
  • Nuremberg Code
  • Objective
  • Operational Definition
  • Outliers
  • Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r)
  • Positive Linear Relationship
  • Pre-Screening
  • Priming
  • Privacy
  • Protocol
  • Random Assignment to Conditions
  • Range
  • Reliability
  • Replicate
  • Replication
  • Research Design
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Respect for Persons
  • Sample
  • Sample Size
  • Scatter Plot
  • Scientific Method
  • Single-Blind Experiment
  • Spurious Relationship
  • Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Standard Deviation
  • Statistical Conclusion Validity
  • Statistical Significance
  • Surveys
  • Theory
  • Traits of Good Theories: General; Parsimonious; Falsifiable
  • Valid
  • Variables


Direct link to self-test:


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Introduction to Psychology Copyright © 2019 by Charles Stangor; Jennifer Walinga; Jorden A. Cummings; and Lee Sanders is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book