Chapter 1. Introducing Psychology

Chapter 1 Summary, Key Terms, and Self-Test

Charles Stangor; Jennifer Walinga; and Jorden A. Cummings


Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behaviour. Most psychologists work in research laboratories, hospitals, and other field settings where they study the behaviour of humans and animals. Some psychologists are researchers and others are practitioners, but all psychologists use scientific methods to inform their work.

Although it is easy to think that everyday situations have common sense answers, scientific studies have found that people are not always as good at predicting outcomes as they often think they are. The hindsight bias leads us to think that we could have predicted events that we could not actually have predicted.

Employing the scientific method allows psychologists to objectively and systematically understand human behaviour.

Psychologists study behaviour at different levels of explanation, ranging from lower biological levels to higher social and cultural levels. The same behaviours can be studied and explained within psychology at different levels of explanation.

The first psychologists were philosophers, but the field became more objective as more sophisticated scientific approaches were developed and employed. Some of the most important historical schools of psychology include structuralism, functionalism, behaviourism, and psychodynamic psychology. Cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and social-cultural psychology are some important contemporary approaches.

Some of the basic questions asked by psychologists, both historically and currently, include those about the relative roles of nature versus nurture in behaviour, free will versus determinism, accuracy versus inaccuracy, and conscious versus unconscious processing.

Psychological phenomena are complex, and making predictions about them is difficult because they are multiply determined at different levels of explanation. Research has found that people are frequently unaware of the causes of their own behaviours.

There are a variety of available career choices within psychology that provide employment in many different areas of interest.

Key Terms

  • Behaviourism
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Collectivism
  • Conformity
  • Culture
  • Data
  • Depression
  • Dualism
  • Empirical methods
  • Evolutionary psychology
  • Facts
  • Fitness
  • Heritability¬†of the characteristic
  • Hindsight bias
  • Individual differences
  • Individualism
  • Introspection
  • Levels of explanation
  • Multiply determined
  • Neuroimaging
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Psychodynamic psychology
  • Psychologist-practitioners
  • Psychology
  • Repressed
  • Research psychologists
  • School of functionalism
  • Scientific method
  • Social norms
  • Social-cultural psychology
  • Structuralism
  • Theory of natural selection

Self Test

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Introduction to Psychology Copyright © 2019 by Charles Stangor; Jennifer Walinga; and Jorden A. Cummings is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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