- Review the parts of a typical textbook.
- Use questions to read more deeply and actively.
Open your text to the assigned pages. What is the chapter title? Is the chapter divided into sections? What are the section titles? Which sections are longer? Are there any illustrations? What are they about? Illustrations in books cost money, so chances are the author and publisher thought these topics were particularly important, or they would not have been included. How about tables? What kinds of information do they show? Are there bold or italicized words? Are these terms you are familiar with, or are they new to you? Are you getting a sense for what is important in the chapter? Why did the author choose to cover certain ideas and to highlight specific ideas with graphics or boldface fonts? What do they tell you about what will be most important for you in your course? What do you think your instructor wants you to get out of the assignment? Why?
Anatomy of a Textbook
Textbooks are designed to help you learn, not just to present information. They differ from other types of academic publications intended to present research findings, advance new ideas, or deeply examine a specific subject. Textbooks have many features worth exploring because they can help you understand your reading better and learn more effectively. In your textbooks, look for the elements listed in the table below.
Table 5.1 Anatomy of a Textbook
|Textbook Feature||What It Is||Why You Might Find It Helpful|
|A section at the beginning of a book in which the author or editor outlines its purpose and scope, acknowledges individuals who helped prepare the book, and perhaps outlines the features of the book.||You will gain perspective on the author’s point of view, what the author considers important. If the preface is written with the student in mind, it will also give you guidance on how to “use” the textbook and its features.|
|Foreword||A section at the beginning of the book, often written by an expert in the subject matter (different from the author) endorsing the author’s work and explaining why the work is significant.||A foreword will give you an idea about what makes this book different from others in the field. It may provide hints as to why your instructor selected the book for your course.|
|Author Profile||A short biography of the author illustrating the author’s credibility in the subject matter.||This will help you understand the author’s perspective and what the author considers important.|
|A listing of all the chapters in the book and, in most cases, primary sections within chapters.||The table of contents is an outline of the entire book. It will be very helpful in establishing links among the text, the course objectives, and the syllabus.|
Chapter Preview or Learning
|A section at the beginning of each chapter in which the author outlines what will be covered in the chapter and what the student should expect to know or be able to do at the end of the chapter.||These sections are invaluable for determining what you should pay special attention to. Be sure to compare these outcomes with the objectives stated in the course syllabus.|
|Introduction||The first paragraph(s) of a chapter, which states the chapter’s objectives and key themes. An introduction is also common at the beginning of primary chapter sections.||Introductions to chapters or sections are “must reads” because they give you a road map to the material you are about to read, pointing you to what is truly important in the chapter or section.|
|Applied Practice Elements||Exercises, activities, or drills designed to let students apply their knowledge gained from the reading. Some of these features may be presented via Web sites designed to supplement the text.||These features provide you with a great way to confirm your understanding of the material. If you have trouble with them, you should go back and reread the section. They also have the additional benefit of improving your recall of the material.|
|Chapter Summary||A section at the end of a chapter that confirms key ideas presented in the chapter.||It is a good idea to read this section before you read the body of the chapter. It will help you strategize about where you should invest your reading effort.|
|Review Material||A section at the end of the chapter that includes additional applied practice exercises, review questions, and suggestions for further reading.||The review questions will help you confirm your understanding of the material.|
|Endnotes and Bibliographies||Formal citations of sources used to prepare the text.||These will help you infer the author’s biases and are also valuable if doing further research on the subject for a paper.|
Use your critical thinking skill to question what the author is saying. Turn the title of each major section of the reading into a question and write it down in your left column of your notes. For example, if the section title is “The End of the Industrial Revolution,” you might write, “What caused the Industrial Revolution to end?” If the section title is “The Chemistry of Photosynthesis,” you might write, “What chemical reactions take place to cause photosynthesis, and what are the outcomes?” Note that your questions are related to the kind of material you are hearing about in class, and they usually require not a short answer but a thoughtful, complete understanding. Finally, also in the left column, jot down any keywords that appear in boldface. You will want to discover their definitions and the significance of each as you read.